The recent words of Serbian President Vučić touched the hearts of Chinese netizens-the EU cannot be trusted, and the only ally we can trust is China. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China also said that "China will always stand with Serbia." What has this China's biggest ally in Europe experienced in history, and what made China and Serbia have such a profound war friendship? This article will talk about it.
Serbia accounts for the overwhelming majority of ethnic groups, and Serbs have a history of ups and downs. The Serbs were originally a Slavs. They came to Serbia in the 8th century and began to believe in the Orthodox Church under the influence of the Byzantine Empire. To this day, Serbs have a dream of Greater Serbia, which originated from here.
There is a book in Serbia called "Our Creation and Effort". I have to say that creation and hard work are indeed the two most important qualities of Serbians. Two hundred years after coming to the Balkans, Serbia completely separated from Bulgaria's control and achieved independence. The great monarch Karoni Milovich established a country named "Serbia" for the first time in the tenth century. The prelude to the dream of the Great Serbia in the Middle Ages slowly opened.
"When the Serbs acquire a piece of territory, they will build and work, and in the end they will get the Serbia that the Serbs deserve." Under the guidance of this sentence that looks like a philosophical poem, the Nemanya Dynasty has arrived. ——The sentence just now proved to be a sentence often said by the Serbs during the Nimanya Dynasty. In 1190, Stefan Nimanya relied on his own strength to force the once invincible Great Byzantium to recognize Serbia's independence. A few years later, the Nimanya dynasty became king. Remember the Bulgarian empire that invaded Serbia in the middle of the ninth century? In 1330, the Serbian leader Stefan Uros II personally led his army to defeat the Bulgarian Empire’s successor to the Second Bulgarian Empire, and relied on the deterrence of force to make the Bulgarian Empire a subject of Serbia. Czar Stefan Duchamp, who came to power in 1331, pushed Greater Serbia to the extreme. Today, history students from all over the world are studying Duchamp's Code.
“当塞族获得一块领土时，他们将建设和工作，最终他们将获得塞族应得的塞尔维亚。”在这首似哲学诗的句子的指导下，Nemanya王朝到来了。 -这句话被证明是在尼曼亚王朝时期塞尔维亚人经常说的一句话。 1190年，斯蒂芬·尼曼亚（Stefan Nimanya）依靠自己的力量迫使曾经无敌的大拜占庭（Big Byzantium）承认塞尔维亚的独立。几年后，尼曼亚王朝成为国王。还记得九世纪中叶入侵塞尔维亚的保加利亚帝国吗？ 1330年，塞尔维亚领导人斯特凡·乌罗斯二世亲自率军击败了保加利亚帝国的第二保加利亚帝国的继任者，并依靠武力威慑使保加利亚帝国成为塞尔维亚的臣民。沙皇斯特凡·杜尚（Czar Stefan Duchamp）于1331年上台，将大塞尔维亚推向了极端。今天，来自世界各地的历史学生正在学习杜尚的《法典》。
The Serbs, who ruled the Balkans for three centuries, soon met the crazy Muslims with the "Great Ottoman Dream"-Ottoman Turkey. )" at the beginning. Beginning with the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. This war is the battle of the Ottoman Empire, and the Serb czar Lazar died in this war. Of course, at the end of the war, a Serb aristocrat who surrendered killed the Ottoman Turkish coach Murad I. This is also the origin of the Serb myth "death assassination". The Serb's indomitable and undaunted spirit triggered a war in the future.
Ottoman Turkey ruled Serbia for five centuries, but in the later period, with the help of Tsarist Russia, Serbia gradually recovered its vitality as an independent country. In fact, as an independent nation, the Serbs have never really been eliminated by the Ottomans. On the contrary, the Serb culture has countered the Ottomans. By the time the Kingdom of Serbia was established in 1882, there were already Ottoman regiments fighting for Serbia. In the first and second Balkan Wars in 1910, the Serbian army completely regained Kosovo and did not conquer more than half of the land.
"We only want our complete Serbia, we don't want other people's land and other people's country"
But when they said this, they would not forget that Vojvodina, the great Serb territory, is still in the hands of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and is oppressed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
As the Serbian national anthem is written, the land and people of Serbia will always be tightly united. No Serb citizen can watch Vojvodina become a child of another family like this.
On June 28, 1914, Serbian patriotic young Principe armed with a Browning automatic pistol, fired seven consecutive shots and killed the Austro-Hungarian Crown Prince Ferdinand. In his heart, he was only avenging for Vojvodina and Serbs. But what he could not think of was that the murderers in the upper Austro-Hungarian Empire had already sharpened their swords and waited for an excuse to wait for their bloody desires.
Alliance·From Unbreakable to Breaking
Throughout 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Empire did not take advantage of Serbia. The Franz dynasty dispatched troops and generals, but they suffered three defeats in Serbia that shook the country. As the saying goes, "If you can't beat it, you will be called a man", so Germany and Bulgaria joined the war in 1915 without shame. In 1915, the Allied forces occupied the entire territory of Serbia, and the Serbs destroyed the country three times.
Of course, as the saying goes, justice will prevail and the people will prevail. In 1918, the Allied powers were finally defeated, and many Balkan countries formed an alliance, which later formed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. This is the first major integration of Slavic countries. The Serbs are of course happy to see it, and Serb politicians have also worked hard to promote the alliance. But they never expected that this alliance...
On December 1, 1918, King Peter I of the Kingdom of Serbia announced the establishment of the Serbian, Croat and Slovenian Kingdoms. This kingdom includes the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, as well as large areas of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. These territories include Caniola, which belonged to the Austrian Empire, most of Styria and Dalmatia, and Croatia, Slavonia, and Vojvo Dinar, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, a province directly under the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia is a constitutional monarchy, but it also has the flavor of a split multi-party system. At the beginning of the alliance, there was a large-scale conflict between the governments of many countries and the emperor because of the choice of prime minister. This is also known as the "first government crisis." And then the drawbacks of this kind of split multiparty system appeared again-Prime Minister Protic was the leader of the Radical Party, while Lyubómir Davidovic led the Democratic Party and implemented a highly centralized policy, which caused some Croatian representatives to turn to the opposition. However, the Radical Party had only three ministers, as opposed to the eleven of the Democratic Party. As a result, Protic resigned on August 16, 1919. Davidovich then formed a ruling coalition with the Social Democratic Party. The new government did not obtain a majority, but the minimum number required by the temporary representation system was half of the deputies plus one vote, and the opposition boycotted the parliament. The government was not sure that all supporters would attend the meeting, and the meeting failed. Davidovic resigned immediately, but no one could organize the government, so he became prime minister again. The opposition continues to boycott the government, and the government can only govern the country with emergency laws. The opposition condemned the government and established a parliamentary community, expressing firm support for the parliamentary system. It was difficult for Davidovic to support the overall situation, and he asked the king to immediately elect the Constituent Assembly, but failed to resign.
The previous version of Serbia’s history textbook described this history in this way—nomination, appointment, resignation, endless loop. Quite a bit of British comics. Just such an alliance is not like a federation or a confederation. When united, it is better than a one-party superiority system, but when it is split, it is even more scattered than the confederate system.
It was precisely from the partisan struggle we mentioned earlier that Kersey’s political conflicts began to intensify rapidly. There is a saying in Serbia that "eggs that are not in a basket will not break." The Croatian Democratic Party and the Serbian Radical Party in a basket have thus started an endless struggle. The second struggle was due to the constitution-Serb politicians believed that they should be loyal to the emperor, but Croat politicians were afraid that Yugoslavia would become the next German empire after loyal to the emperor. In the end, Kosovo, who was still obedient at the time, voted in favor, and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia "passed loyalty to the emperor with one vote." This bill’s changes are much more complicated than the French Sankyo Act.
Serbian politicians believe that Serbia should unite the Yugoslav states, just like Piedmont that unified Italy and Prussia that unified Germany. At that time, Greater Serbia still controlled the entire Yugoslavia, and the decree could be regressed. But this led to Croatia becoming more and more resistant to the Serbian Center policy a few years after the establishment of the kingdom. The leader of the Croatian Peasant Party, Stjepan Radic, was imprisoned for political reasons. He was released and returned to Parliament in 1925.
In the late 1930s, the Serbs and Croats planned to establish racially divided federal administrative regions, and the internal situation became more tense. The former wants Macedonia, Vojvodina, Montenegro and Serbia to merge, while Croatia wants to merge with Dalmatia and part of Vojvodina. As for Bosnia and Herzegovina, which has a majority of Bosnian Muslims, both parties claim their sovereignty. At that time, Nazi Germany rapidly expanded its territory and changed the situation. In 1939, Prince Paul appointed Dragisa Cvetkovic as prime minister, hoping to reach an agreement with Croatia. Then, on August 26, Marchek became Deputy Prime Minister. On the same day, the Croatian Province was established, with an independent parliament. The territory includes present-day Croatia and northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina. So the local Serbs became a minority, and Ustasha also jumped out at this time-Ustasha was also dissatisfied with the distribution of territory, thinking that Croatia should have the entire territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The contradiction is intensifying.
In 1939, World War II broke out. This time the war has changed from a European war to a world war. The war is no longer a sprinkling gadget like unrestricted submarine warfare, but a complete retreat of Dunkirk and General Patton's advance in a thousand miles. Super large-scale war. When the war progressed to the stalemate stage, the ruling class of the Southern Kingdom, accustomed to pampering themselves, failed to maintain their integrity after all. In 1941, Prince Paul signed the infamous "Three Kingdoms Pact" on behalf of the Southern Kingdom and declared appeasement. This triggered almost crazy anger among Serb citizens, which represented the fragmentation of the Great Serbia dream. In the same month, Serb students set off a 100,000 demonstration in Belgrade. With the help of the British, the 18-year-old Peter II overthrew Prince Paul. His coming to power was once regarded as a "civilian victory" and "a Slavs victory", but in the end everyone discovered that this was just a victory for the Great Empire and had nothing to do with Yugoslavia.
1939年，第二次世界大战爆发。这次战争从欧洲战争变成了世界大战。这场战争不再像无限制的海底战争那样扑朔迷离，而是完全撤退了敦刻尔克（Dunkirk）和巴顿将军的前进1000英里。超级大战。当战争发展到僵局时，习惯宠爱自己的南方王国统治阶级终究无法保持自己的完整。 1941年，保罗亲王代表南方王国签署了臭名昭著的“三个王国条约”，并宣布app靖。这引起了塞尔维亚公民之间几乎疯狂的愤怒，这代表了大塞尔维亚梦的破碎。同月，塞族学生在贝尔格莱德掀起了10万示威游行。 18岁的彼得二世在英国人的帮助下推翻了保罗王子。他的上台曾经被认为是“平民胜利”和“斯拉夫人胜利”，但最终每个人都发现这只是大帝国的胜利，与南斯拉夫无关。
This Peter II did almost nothing. When foreign troops entered Yugoslavia, he ran faster than anyone else.
Soon after, General Milan Redic established a Serbian puppet government, respecting Peter II as Emperor. At this time Redditch was still very excited-he finally became the head of the government, but he didn't know that the hearts of the people at this time had already been robbed by another person.
In 1919, several social democratic parties of Yugoslavia convened a unified congress in Belgrade and established the Socialist Workers' Party of Yugoslavia. The new party decided to join the Communist International. In 1920, the second party congress was held in Vukovar and was renamed the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. In 1921, the party was declared illegal by the Royal Government of Yugoslavia and moved into underground activities. In 1937 Tito was appointed by the Communist International as the temporary general secretary of the Yugoslav Communist Party. After the outbreak of World War II, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia did not actually participate in the war against Germany due to the influence of the Soviet-German agreement. Before 1940, it even participated in anti-war activities.
1919年，南斯拉夫的几个社会民主党在贝尔格莱德召开了一次统一代表大会，并成立了南斯拉夫社会主义工人党。新党决定加入共产国际。 1920年，第二届党代会在武科瓦尔举行，并更名为南斯拉夫共产党。 1921年，该党被南斯拉夫王国政府宣布为非法，并进入地下活动。 1937年，铁托被共产国际任命为南斯拉夫共产党的临时秘书长。第二次世界大战爆发后，由于苏德协议的影响，南斯拉夫共产党实际上没有参加对德国的战争。 1940年之前，它甚至参加了反战活动。
The turning point was in the Fifth National Congress of the South Communist Party in 1937. Stalin chose a Croat to form the South Communist Party. He was Joseph Broz Tito.
转折点是在1937年的南方共产党第五次全国代表大会上。斯大林选择了克罗地亚人来组建南方共产党。他是约瑟夫·布罗兹·铁托（Joseph Broz Tito）。
In the Balkans, Tito actively led the guerrillas to kill the invaders. He took the lead and was a "great communist fighter, a pioneering death squad" and "an image symbol of the Slavs." After the establishment of the Yugoslavian League after World War II, Tito ruled the country with Titoism: he advocated the use of a milder decentralization model to govern the country. Americans believed that Titoism is a more stable and free political theory system than other socialist countries. Ideology of communism.
Tito believes that the guidelines and policies adopted in each country to achieve the ultimate goal of communism must be different from other countries based on the unique conditions of this country. In Tito's time, this meant that the pursuit of communism should be independent of (and often opposed to) the policies of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. This goal led Tito to support the existence of Israel and the establishment of the State of Israel, unlike the Soviet Union.
This is not socialism.
It is precisely because of this that the so-called Titoism can only be applied in the "big Tito era", because it completely relies on Tito's strong personal appeal, and everyone is convinced by Tito. And when such a co-lord of the eternal line left the world to meet Marx in 1980, there were no politicians in this world to believe in the theories left by Tito. Of course, this has something to do with the "peaceful evolution" that the United States has always admired, and Titoism does not like to suppress cultural criticism...
So Yugoslavia was worse than the SSSR at the map head in the later period. Ge map, Ye Siguo, iron authority, three totems.
Tito died without a designated heir in 1980. Democratization was also promoted in the Soviet Union under the guidance of Gorbachev. Onnack of East Germany, Zhivkov of Bulgaria and Husak of Czechoslovakia They were forced to step down due to large-scale reforms. Among them, Romania directly executed the great dictator Ceausescu. Yugoslavia also abolished the one-party dictatorship of the Communist Party and decided to implement free elections. The countries that make up Yugoslavia have begun to prepare to leave Yugoslavia. . At this time, nationalists such as Serbia’s Milosevic began to take power. As the leader of Serbia, the center of Yugoslavia, Milosevic proclaimed Greater Serbia and forcibly forced the Albanian Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo. The abolition of the autonomy power of Kosovo triggered Kosovo’s declaration of independence in July 1990. Since then, successive civil wars have begun in Yugoslavia.
铁托在1980年去世，没有指定的继承人。在戈尔巴乔夫的领导下，苏联也促进了民主化。东德的昂纳克，保加利亚的日夫科夫和捷克斯洛伐克的胡萨克由于大规模的改革而被迫下台。其中，罗马尼亚直接处决了大独裁者齐奥塞斯库。南斯拉夫还废除了共产党的一党专政，并决定实行自由选举。组成南斯拉夫的国家已开始准备离开南斯拉夫。 。这时，塞尔维亚的米洛舍维奇（Milosevic）等民族主义者开始掌权。作为南斯拉夫中部塞尔维亚的领导人，米洛舍维奇宣布大塞尔维亚，并强行迫使阿尔巴尼亚社会主义自治省科索沃。 1990年7月，科索沃自治权的取消引发了科索沃宣布独立。此后，南斯拉夫开始了连续的内战。
On June 25, 1991, Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence at the same time. In view of the fact that the two countries have started their independence, the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina also embarked on the road to seceding from the Federation. On September 8, 1991, the Republic of Macedonia held a referendum on independence, in which 95% of voters favored Macedonia’s independence from the Yugoslavia. On November 20, Macedonia promulgated a new constitution, officially declaring independence. Macedonia's independence is the first time that the United States has directly stepped down to guide the countries of the Yugoslavia to separate from the Yugoslavia. With the help of the European Union and the United States, Macedonia became independent peacefully. The previous independence was done under the guidance of American NGOs.
1991年6月25日，斯洛文尼亚和克罗地亚同时宣布独立。鉴于两国已经开始独立，波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那政府也走上了脱离联邦的道路。 1991年9月8日，马其顿共和国举行了关于独立的全民投票，其中95％的选民赞成马其顿脱离南斯拉夫的独立。 11月20日，马其顿颁布了新宪法，正式宣布独立。马其顿的独立是美国首次直接下台以指导南斯拉夫各国脱离南斯拉夫的独立。在欧洲联盟和美国的帮助下，马其顿和平独立。先前的独立是在美国非政府组织的指导下完成的。
On December 1, the five countries of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy, and Poland announced in Venice that “the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia no longer exists”. This day was recorded in the Serbian history textbook as a “day of shame”. Countries that have not joined the Yugoslavian Federation declare their understanding. Regarding this result, the Serbs obviously did not admit it. They and Montenegro formed the dualistic country Serbia and Montenegro, which became the orthodox successor of the FRY. However, the United Nations dominated by a certain country does not want Tito’s last dream to remain in the Balkans. On September 22, 1992, at the United Nations General Assembly, Yugoslavia was expelled by the United Nations.
Within a few years, Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence. But according to Obama's words, "this time the results are not ideal" because a Serb Republic entity is still retained and Bosnia and Herzegovina cannot do anything about it. Soon, Kosovo sought independence. This time, the Americans, Western Europeans, NATOs, Westerners, and capitalists are determined not to allow the Serbian Republic to happen again. They must completely dismantle Serbia and completely divide the Serbs into N, even though from AD Kosovo was Serbia’s inherent territory in the sixth century.
An unnamed official of the U.S. Human Rights Council once said in an interview with the Russian newspaper, "The Serbs are worthless in the eyes of human rights."
In 1990, Kosovo
On March 23, 1999, the US Balkan envoy Richard Hobrook announced the failure of the so-called Rambouillet agreement peace negotiations. The Clinton administration announced that it would no longer carry out any diplomatic efforts and carry out indiscriminate air strikes against Yugoslavia. The 78-day nightmare began, a nightmare that the Serbs had never thought of began. Thousands of years ago, they used swords and guns to drive away the Bulgarian invaders and establish a Serb state, but this time they were helpless in the face of threats from the sky. NATO has carried out 24-hour non-stop bombing of all military targets in the Yugoslavia. It also bombed Yugoslavia’s civilian facilities such as bridges, railways, highways, factories, television stations, communication systems, and power systems. At that time, a comment on Russian television pointed out that the policy of the Clinton administration was to stop fighting and dissatisfied, until the country is subjugated and the clan is destroyed. Up to now, the United States still does not recognize that they have carried out a "genocidal strike" against the Serbs (with the Nickridge government), but the Americans have instead accused Milosevic of "carrying out a brutal genocide against Kosovo."
1999年3月23日，美国巴尔干特使理查德·霍布鲁克（Richard Hobrook）宣布所谓的朗布依埃协议和平谈判失败。克林顿政府宣布将不再进行任何外交努力，也不会对南斯拉夫进行不分青红皂白的空袭。 78天的噩梦开始了，塞尔维亚人从未想过的噩梦开始了。几千年前，他们用剑和枪将保加利亚侵略者赶走，建立了塞族国家，但这次，他们面对天空的威胁却束手无策。北约对南斯拉夫的所有军事目标进行了24小时不间断轰炸。它还轰炸了南斯拉夫的民用设施，例如桥梁，铁路，公路，工厂，电视台，通信系统和电力系统。当时，俄罗斯电视台的一则评论指出，克林顿政府的政策是停止战斗和不满，直到该国被征服并且氏族被摧毁为止。到目前为止，美国仍然不承认他们（与尼克里奇政府）对塞族人进行了“种族灭绝打击”，但美国人却指控米洛舍维奇“对科索沃进行了残酷的种族灭绝”。
NATO launched 2,300 missiles at 990 targets and dropped 14,000 bombs including depleted uranium bombs and cluster bombs. More than 2,000 civilians were killed, including 88 children, and thousands were injured. More than 200,000 Serbs were forced to evacuate; Yugoslav officials said NATO airstrikes destroyed more than 300 schools, libraries and more than 20 hospitals. At least 40,000 houses were razed or damaged, and about 90 historical and architectural relics were damaged.
北约向990个目标发射了2,300枚导弹，投下了14,000枚炸弹，其中包括贫铀炸弹和集束炸弹。 2,000多名平民丧凯发国际首页入口生，包括88名儿童，数千人受伤。 200,000多名塞族人被迫撤离；南斯拉夫官员说，北约的空袭摧毁了300多所学校，图书馆和20多家医院。至少有40,000所房屋被夷为平地或被破坏，大约90座历史和建筑文物被破坏。
The United Nations determined that Yugoslavia committed genocide against Kosovo.
During the Kosovo War in 1999, on the night of May 7, local time, and on May 8, Beijing time, NATO’s US B-2 bombers launched 5
This incident aroused strong indignation from the Chinese people. The students of Peking University put up slogans not to take the TOEFL test (TOEFL) or not to take the postal test (GRE), and they would fight the American imperial wholeheartedly. Hong Kong citizens besieged the US office in Hong Kong for 36 hours. Even the citizens of Taiwan Province demanded that the Lee Teng-hui authorities "deport Americans in Taiwan, restore Chinese sovereignty, and combat imperialism."
In the end, Milosevic surrendered on behalf of the FRY. The Serbs think this is another destruction of the country.
More than 20 years have passed since the May 8th Incident, and it will be 21 years in May. In the past two decades, the Serbs have experienced ups and downs and the years have changed. First, the Yugoslav League finally became Serbia and Montenegro. In 2006, there was a division of Serbia and Montenegro, who was ridiculed by the short film "China won the World Cup". The Kersey dispute has not been resolved, and Kosovo representatives even appeared publicly at the UN General Assembly in the past few years The venue also borrowed the personal privileges of Americans to make a speech. Had it not been for the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China to always stand on the side of Serbia, Kosovo would have already become a member of the United Nations.
The Serbian song "If We Are as Strong as China" once said that if we are as powerful as China, Serbia will be a big country. Greater Serbia has been their dream. Of course, they have to write a footnote to their dreams-even when they ruled the Balkans, they only radiated culture outwards, but did not do any military suppression. They only want the "land given to the Serbs by heaven" in the Bible and do not want to invade and occupy the "sacred territories of other countries."
This is Serbia, China's ironiest buddy in Europe; this is Serbia, the ironiest brother of the Chinese nation in Europe.
This article may not be objective, because it was written by a non-professional historian in mainland China. I consider myself an ordinary fan, and occasionally shout "Football Ruler" in the MUN conferences, that's all.
First statement: This article refers to a total of 79 from the Nemanya Dynasty to Serbia
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Zen Chida (November 21, 2002). Why does war not end? Thinking about ethnicity, conflict, and international politics on the Yugo issue. Japan: Misuzu Shobo. ISBN 978-4-622-07014-6
Zen Chida（2002年11月21日）。为什么战争不会结束？关于南斯拉夫问题的种族，冲突和国际政治的思考。日本：Misuzu Shobo。 ISBN 978-4-622-07014-6
Audio clips: Traditional music of Serbia and Montenegro. Geneva Museum of Ethnography. Retrieved November 25, 2010
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Edited by Zhao Naibin and Wang Limin, 2002.7, "The Changes in Yugoslavia"
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The editor of this article believes that Wikipedia’s views and quoted materials are "more from Taiwan Province", so this article strives not to use the views used by Wikipedia, and not to use the terms provided by Wikipedia. More often, in comments and the results of the war, we quoted the United Russia, Russia Today, and Serbia’s domestic media, including mainland media and mainland works. The varieties are mixed, so I won't list them one by one.